The political authority of the tsarist regime had been weakened by the reforms of Alexander II but was restored by his son alexander jiii
Assess the validity of this view
Argument: on the whole yes due to Tsar liberator, but a3 did give some concessions too. Some of A2’s reforms did actually help strengthen PA too.
All over Russia quote
Women non voc
Uni students 3600 to 10,000 by 1870
Increase indep thinking
A3 uni charter. Prevents student freedom. Autonoym of unis reduced. Increased pol authority
A2- Emanicpation: preserves: “abolish serdom from above than it is for it to be over time, abolished from below”.
Student protests afterwards though? Minor…not full population rioting
Satisfied peasants so PA kept up
A2- 1881 RP, 1883 LB, 1885 PT RIT- giving in? Conceiding PA? More likely that economic benefits created satisfied peasants
A2 relaxes it: post pub censorship
Editorials crit gov. foreign pubs. Allowed to undermine PA and regime: ALTHOUGH there was powers in place to remove offensive liteartyure
A3- Temp Regu Tolstoy. Bans newspapers editors/pubs
More active censors
No chance of criticism so PA strengthened: less chance of organising/encouraging oppisitons
A2- zemstvo of 1864- “alternate establishment” Hos- extends political invovl to intelligentsia who crit regime
Loris Melikov Const: promised a lot to many groups: parliament first and foremost: promising a limited monarchy; posed HUGE threat to regime but luckily A2 died beforehand (mwahaha)
A3- Would not grant Russia consitutiona for anything on earth
Places zemstva under central control- 1890 Zemstva Act
A2- open courts VZ 1878- jures
A3- 1889 (2)- Volosts under direct jurisdiction of Land Captain. Appoint own town court judges.
1887 (2): Close court, property/educ quals for jury raised.
1885 (1)- Minister Justice greater control: dismiss judges, so only those favourable to autocracy