Political Authority: Undermined by Alexander II, restored by Alexander III?

The political authority of the tsarist regime had been weakened by the reforms of Alexander II but was restored by his son alexander jiii

Assess the validity of this view


Argument: on the whole yes due to Tsar liberator, but a3 did give some concessions too. Some of A2’s reforms did actually help strengthen PA too.



All over Russia quote

Women non voc

Uni students 3600 to 10,000 by 1870

Increase indep thinking


A3 uni charter. Prevents student freedom. Autonoym of unis reduced. Increased pol authority



A2- Emanicpation: preserves: “abolish serdom from above than it is for it to be over time, abolished from below”.

Student protests afterwards though? Minor…not full population rioting

Satisfied peasants so PA kept up

A2- 1881 RP, 1883 LB, 1885 PT RIT- giving in? Conceiding PA? More likely that economic benefits created satisfied peasants



A2 relaxes it: post pub censorship

Editorials crit gov. foreign pubs. Allowed to undermine PA and regime: ALTHOUGH there was powers in place to remove offensive liteartyure

A3- Temp Regu Tolstoy. Bans newspapers editors/pubs

More active censors

No chance of criticism so PA strengthened: less chance of organising/encouraging oppisitons


Political Reform

A2- zemstvo of 1864- “alternate establishment” Hos- extends political invovl to intelligentsia who crit regime

Loris Melikov Const: promised a lot to many groups: parliament first and foremost: promising a limited monarchy; posed HUGE threat to regime but luckily A2 died beforehand (mwahaha)

A3- Would not grant Russia  consitutiona for anything on earth

Places zemstva under central control- 1890 Zemstva Act



A2- open courts VZ 1878- jures

A3- 1889 (2)- Volosts under direct jurisdiction of Land Captain. Appoint own town court judges.

1887 (2): Close court, property/educ quals for jury raised.

1885 (1)- Minister Justice greater control: dismiss judges, so only those favourable to autocracy

PA restored




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