Volcano Case Studies for OCR A2 Geography Level

Volcanoes

Ontake, Japan 2014: PHREATIC

Trigger

Phreatic eruption so molten rock superheats and then destabilises the geothermal system which causes a steam driven ERUPTION

Background

No prior warning

Tourist destination

Impact

Social

57 dead

Holidays ruined

Economic

Cancelled hotels

Cost of clearage

Environmental

Habitat and animals killed by pyroclastic flow and ash

Positive: these flows have lots of minerals, ash containing metals for better plant growth afterwards

Deforestation caused by pyroclastic flows

Responses

Chopper searches

Developed forecastings

Montserrat, Mt Soufriere

Trigger

Destructive plate boundary

North America vs south America subduction under carribean plate: forming volcanic arc of islands incl Montserrat

Background

Choice to urbanise: build capital Plymouth next to volcano

Farmers choose to stay behind despite evacuation

Impact

Social

19 farmers dead.

Livelihoods destroyed.

 

Economic

Prior to eruption 80% of exports were agricultural: AGRARIAN ECONOMY DESTROYED

Environmental

Evactuations allows for habitats to flourish near volcano

Pyroclastic flows damage crops and stuff

Responses

Aid frm uk and usa $122m and £6.5m

Evacuation prior

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